História (do grego ἱστορία , historia , que significa "investigação; conhecimento adquirido por investigação") é o estudo do passado. Os eventos que ocorreram antes da invenção dos sistemas de escrita são considerados pré-história . "História" é um termo abrangente que se relaciona a eventos passados, bem como a memória, descoberta, coleta, organização, apresentação e interpretação de informações sobre esses eventos. Os historiadores colocam o passado em contexto usando fontes históricas , como documentos escritos, relatos orais, marcadores ecológicos e objetos materiais, incluindo arte e artefatos.
A história também inclui a disciplina acadêmica que usa a narrativa para descrever, examinar, questionar e analisar uma sequência de eventos passados e investigar os padrões de causa e efeito relacionados a eles. Os historiadores procuram compreender e representar o passado por meio de narrativas. Freqüentemente, eles debatem qual narrativa explica melhor um evento, bem como a importância das diferentes causas e efeitos. Os historiadores também debatem a natureza da história e sua utilidade, discutindo o estudo da disciplina como um fim em si mesma e como uma forma de fornecer uma "perspectiva" sobre os problemas do presente.
Histórias comuns a uma cultura específica, mas não apoiadas por fontes externas (como os contos em torno do Rei Arthur ), são geralmente classificadas como patrimônio cultural ou lendas . A história difere do mito por ser sustentada por evidências . No entanto, as influências antigas ajudaram a gerar interpretações variantes da natureza da história, que evoluíram ao longo dos séculos e continuam a mudar hoje. O estudo moderno da história é amplo e inclui o estudo de regiões específicas e o estudo de certos elementos tópicos ou temáticos da investigação histórica. História é frequentemente ensinada como parte da educação primária e secundária, e o estudo acadêmico da história é uma disciplina importante em estudos universitários.
Heródoto , um historiador grego do século V aC é frequentemente considerado (dentro da tradição ocidental) como o "pai da história" ou o "pai da mentira". Junto com seu contemporâneo Tucídides , ele ajudou a formar as bases para o estudo moderno da história humana. Suas obras continuam a ser lidas hoje, e a lacuna entre Heródoto, com foco na cultura, e Tucídides, com foco militar, permanece um ponto de discórdia ou abordagem na escrita histórica moderna. No Leste da Ásia, uma crônica do estado , os Anais da Primavera e do Outono , era conhecida por ter sido compilada desde 722 aC, embora apenas textos do século 2 aC tenham sobrevivido. ( Artigo completo ... )
Assim, enquanto outros soberanos europeus construíam luxuosos palácios modernos do Renascimento e do Barroco , a política e o bom senso exigiam que o palácio dos governantes monegascos fosse fortificado. Esta exigência única, em um estágio tão avançado da história, fez do palácio de Mônaco um dos mais incomuns da Europa. Na verdade, quando suas fortificações foram finalmente relaxadas no final do século 18, foi apreendida pelos franceses e despojados de seus tesouros, e entrou em declínio, enquanto os Grimaldi permaneceram exilados por mais de 20 anos. ( Artigo completo ... )
In 235 BC, Cleomenes III (r. 235–222 BC) ascended the throne of Sparta and began a program of reform aimed at restoring traditional Spartan discipline while weakening the influence of the ephors, elected officials who, though sworn to uphold the rule of Sparta's kings, had by the time of Cleomenes come to wield extraordinary political power in the Spartan system. When, in 229 BC, the ephors sent Cleomenes to seize a town on the border with Megalopolis, the Achaeans declared war. Cleomenes responded by ravaging Achaea. At Mount Lycaeum he defeated an army under Aratus of Sicyon, the strategos of the Achaean League, that had been sent to attack Elis, and then routed a second army near Megalopolis. (Full article...)
John Woods Whittle, VC, DCM (3 August 1882 – 2 March 1946) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British and British Commonwealth armed forces. Whittle was serving as a sergeant in the First World War when he was decorated with the Victoria Cross following two separate actions against German forces during their retreat to the Hindenburg Line in 1917. In the latter action, he attacked a machine gun crew, killing the group and seizing the gun.
Born in Tasmania, Whittle completed twelve months active service during the Second Boer War, before returning to Australia and enlisting in the Royal Navy where he served for five years as a stoker. Re-enlisting in the army, he was posted to the Army Service Corps, artillery, and Tasmanian Rifle Regiment prior to the outbreak of the First World War. Transferring to the Australian Imperial Force in 1915, Whittle joined the 12th Battalion in Egypt and embarked for the Western Front the following year. During an attack on the village of La Barque, Whittle rushed a German trench and forced the men from the position; he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal as a result. (Full article...)
The Victoria Cross for Australia is the highest award in the Australian Honours System, superseding the British Victoria Cross for issue to Australians. The Victoria Cross for Australia is the "decoration for according recognition to persons who in the presence of the enemy, perform acts of the most conspicuous gallantry, or daring or pre-eminent acts of valour or self-sacrifice or display extreme devotion to duty."
In 1907, the Brazilian government placed an order for two of the powerful new "dreadnought" warships as part of a larger naval construction program. Argentina quickly responded, as the Brazilian ships outclassed anything in the Argentine fleet. After an extended bidding process, contracts to design and build Rivadavia and Moreno were given to the American Fore River Shipbuilding Company. During their construction, there were rumors that the ships might be sold to a country engaged in the First World War, but both were commissioned into the Argentine Navy. Rivadavia underwent extensive refits in the United States in 1924 and 1925. The ship saw no active service during the Second World War, and its last cruise was made in 1946. Stricken from the naval register in 1957, Rivadavia was sold later that year and broken up for scrap starting in 1959. (Full article...)
Davey embarked for England in June 1916, and rejoined his battalion on the Western Front in October. In January 1918 he was awarded the Military Medal for bravery in rescuing a wounded man under fire. He was promoted to corporal in April. In the lead-up to the capture of Merris in June, he killed an eight-man German machine-gun crew, saving his platoon from annihilation, for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. During this action he was severely wounded. He returned to Australia to be discharged, and was employed by South Australian Railways over many years before dying in 1953, having suffered for years with bronchitis and emphysema. He was buried with full military honours in the AIF Cemetery, West Terrace. His medals are displayed in the Hall of Valour at the Australian War Memorial. (Full article...)
The Sovetsky Soyuz-class battleships (Project 23, Russian: Советский Союз, "Soviet Union"), also known as "Stalin's Republics", were a class of battleships begun by the Soviet Union in the late 1930s but never brought into service. They were designed in response to the battleships being built by Germany. Only four hulls of the fifteen originally planned had been laid down by 1940, when the decision was made to cut the program to only three ships to divert resources to an expanded army rearmament program.
These ships would have rivaled the Imperial JapaneseYamato class and America's planned Montana class in size if any had been completed, although with significantly weaker firepower: nine 406-millimeter (16.0 in) guns compared to the nine 460-millimeter (18.1 in) guns of the Japanese ships and a dozen 16-inch (406.4 mm) on the Montanas. The failure of the Soviet armor plate industry to build cemented armor plates thicker than 230 millimeters (9.1 in) would have negated any advantages from the Sovetsky Soyuz class's thicker armor in combat. (Full article...)
Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes version of the chronicle of John Skylitzes depicting Thomas, on horseback and dressed as a Byzantine emperor, negotiating with the Arabs. The rebellion of Thomas is one of the most richly illustrated episodes in the chronicle.
An army officer of Slavic origin from the Pontus region (now north-eastern Turkey), Thomas rose to prominence, along with the future emperors Michael II and Leo V the Armenian (r. 813–820), under the protection of general Bardanes Tourkos. After Bardanes' failed rebellion in 803, Thomas fell into obscurity until Leo V's rise to the throne, when Thomas was raised to a senior military command in central Asia Minor. After the murder of Leo and usurpation of the throne by Michael the Amorian, Thomas revolted, claiming the throne for himself. Thomas quickly secured support from most of the themes (provinces) and troops in Asia Minor, defeated Michael's initial counter-attack and concluded an alliance with the Abbasid Caliphate. After winning over the maritime themes and their ships as well, he crossed with his army to Europe and laid siege to Constantinople. The imperial capital withstood Thomas's attacks by land and sea, while Michael II called for help from the Bulgarian ruler khanOmurtag. Omurtag attacked Thomas's army, but although repelled, the Bulgarians inflicted heavy casualties on Thomas's men, who broke and fled when Michael took to the field a few months later. Thomas and his supporters sought refuge in Arcadiopolis, where he was soon blockaded by Michael's troops. In the end, Thomas's supporters surrendered him in exchange for a pardon, and he was executed. (Full article...)
L 20e α was a design for a class of battleships to be built in 1918 for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) during World War I. Design work on the class of battleship to succeed the Bayern-class battleships began in 1914, but the outbreak of World War I in July 1914 led to these plans being shelved. Work resumed in early 1916 and lessons from the Battle of Jutland, fought later that year, were incorporated into the design. Reinhard Scheer, the commander of the fleet, wanted larger main guns and a higher top speed than earlier vessels, to combat the latest ships in the British Royal Navy. A variety of proposals were submitted, with armament ranging from the same eight 38 cm (15 in) guns of the Bayern class to eight 42 cm (16.5 in) guns.
Work on the design was completed by September 1918, but by then there was no chance for them to be built. Germany's declining war situation and the reallocation of resources to support the U-boat campaign meant the ships would never be built. The ships would have been significantly larger than the preceding Bayern-class battleships, at 238 m (780 ft 10 in) long, compared to 180 m (590 ft 7 in) for the preceding ships. The L 20e α class would have been significantly faster, with a top speed of 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph), compared to the 21-knot (39 km/h; 24 mph) maximum of the Bayerns and would have been the first German warships to have mounted guns larger than 38 cm. (Full article...)
Members of the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade carry a wounded man on a stretcher during the Battle of Pusan Perimeter in 1950.
Despite concerns over a possible Axis invasion, orders for the general mobilisation of the Royal Yugoslav Army were not issued by the government until 3April 1941, out of fear that this would offend Adolf Hitler and precipitate war. When the invasion commenced on 6April, the 4th Army was only partially mobilised, and this weakness was exacerbated by fifth-column activities within its major units and higher headquarters. Revolts of Croat soldiers broke out in all three divisions in the first few days, causing significant disruption to their mobilisation and deployment. The town of Bjelovar was taken over by rebel troops. Widespread desertions of Croat troops, many of whom turned on their Serb comrades, made control even more difficult. German activity in the 4th Army sector in the first four days included limited objective attacks to seize crossings over the Mura and Drava rivers, along with air attacks by the Luftwaffe. (Full article...)
Siward (/ˈsuːwərd/ or more recently /ˈsiːwərd/) or Sigurd (Old English: Sigeweard, Old Norse: Sigurðr digri) was an important earl of 11th-century northern England. The Old Norse nickname Digri and its Latin translation Grossus ("the stout") are given to him by near-contemporary texts. Siward was probably of Scandinavian origin, perhaps a relative of Earl Ulf, and emerged as a powerful regional strongman in England during the reign of Cnut ("Canute the Great", 1016–1035). Cnut was a Scandinavian ruler who conquered England in the 1010s, and Siward was one of the many Scandinavians who came to England in the aftermath of that conquest. Siward subsequently rose to become sub-ruler of most of northern England. From 1033 at the latest Siward was in control of southern Northumbria, that is, present-day Yorkshire, governing as earl on Cnut's behalf.
He entrenched his position in northern England by marrying Ælfflæd, the daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bamburgh. After killing Ealdred's successor Eadulf in 1041, Siward gained control of all Northumbria. He exerted his power in support of Cnut's successors, kings Harthacnut and Edward, assisting them with vital military aid and counsel. He probably gained control of the middle shires of Northampton and Huntingdon by the 1050s, and there is some evidence that he spread Northumbrian control into Cumberland. In the early 1050s Earl Siward turned against the Scottish king Mac Bethad mac Findlaích ("Macbeth"). Despite the death of his son Osbjorn, Siward defeated Mac Bethad in battle in 1054. More than half a millennium later the adventure in Scotland earned him a place in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Siward died in 1055, leaving one son, Waltheof, who would eventually succeed to Northumbria. St Olave's church in York and nearby Heslington Hill are associated with Siward. (Full article...)
"The Trumpet Calls", a recruitment poster for the Australian Army in World War I. When the United Kingdom declared war on Germany, Australia followed without hesitation. This was considered to be expected by the Australian public, because of the very large number of British-born citizens and first generation Anglo-Australians at the time. A total of 331,814 Australians were sent overseas to serve as part of the Australian Imperial Force with a casualty rate (killed or wounded) of 64%.
A Chola dynasty sculpture depicting Shiva. In Hinduism, Shiva is the deity of destruction and one of the most important gods; in this sculpture he is dancing as Nataraja, the divine dancer who unravels the world in preparation for it being remade by Brahma.
Petra is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Wadi Araba, the great valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It is famous for having many stone structures carved into the rock.
Jews captured by SS and SD troops during the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising are forced to leave their shelter and march to the Umschlagplatz for deportation. The SD trooper pictured second from the right, is Josef Blösche, who was identified by Polish authorities using this photograph. Blösche was tried for war crimes in Erfurt, East Germany in 1969, sentenced to death and executed in July of that year.
The Arg-e Bam, in Kerman Province in southeastern Iran, is the largest adobe building in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The ancient citadel has a history dating back around two thousand years, to the Parthian Empire (248 BC – 224 AD), but most of its buildings were constructed during the Safavid dynasty. A strong earthquake on 26 December 2003 largely devastated the fortress and the nearby modern city of Bam. The Arg-e Bam, including the governor's residence, the main tower, the Four Seasons Palace and the hammam, were nearly totally destroyed; this photograph from 2016 shows the citadel partially reconstructed.
A drawing of the Vegetable Lamb of Tartary (Agnus scythicus), a zoophyte of Central Asia. Botanist Henry Lee described it as both a true animal and a living plant, although he did allow for the possibility that the lamb was the fruit of the plant. The lamb was believed to have blood, bones, and flesh like that of a normal lamb. It was connected to the earth by a stem similar to an umbilical cord that propped the lamb up above ground. The cord could flex downward allowing the lamb to feed on the grass and plants surrounding it. Once the plants within reach were eaten, the lamb died, at which point its cotton-like wool would be harvested and used to make textiles.
Este é um artigo em destaque , que representa alguns dos melhores conteúdos da Wikipedia em inglês.
Nansen em 1896
Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen ( norueguês: [ˈfɾɪ̂tːjɔf ˈnɑ̀nsn̩] ; 10 de outubro de 1861 - 13 de maio de 1930) foi um polímata norueguêse ganhador do Prêmio Nobel da Paz . Ele ganhou destaque em vários momentos de sua vida como explorador, cientista, diplomata e humanitário. Ele liderou a equipe que fez a primeira travessia dointeriorda Groenlândia em 1888, atravessando a ilha em esquis cross-country. Ele ganhou fama internacional depois de atingir uma latitude norte recorde de 86 ° 14 ′ durante sua expedição ao Framde 1893-1896. Embora ele tenha se aposentado da exploração após seu retorno à Noruega, suas técnicas de viagem polar e suas inovações em equipamentos e roupas influenciaram uma geração de expedições árticas e antárticas subseqüentes .
Nansen estudou zoologia na Royal Frederick University em Christiania e mais tarde trabalhou como curador no University Museum of Bergen, onde sua pesquisa sobre o sistema nervoso central de criaturas marinhas inferiores lhe rendeu o doutorado e ajudou a estabelecer a doutrina dos neurônios . Mais tarde, o neurocientista Santiago Ramón y Cajal ganhou o Prêmio Nobel de Medicina em 1906 por suas pesquisas sobre o mesmo assunto. Depois de 1896, seu principal interesse científico mudou para a oceanografia ; no decorrer de suas pesquisas, fez muitas viagens científicas, principalmente no Atlântico Norte, e contribuiu para o desenvolvimento de modernos equipamentos oceanográficos. ( Artigo completo ...)
Pagode do Templo de Cishou , construído em 1576: os chineses acreditavam que a construção de pagodes em certos locais de acordo com os princípios geomânticos ocasionava eventos auspiciosos; o financiamento mercantil para tais projetos era necessário no final do período Ming.
Extensão geográfica da influência iraniana no século 1 aC. O Império Parta (principalmente do Irã ocidental ) é mostrado em vermelho, outras áreas, dominadas pela Cítia (principalmente do Irã oriental ), em laranja.
Uma representação japonesa de uma carraca comercial portuguesa . Os avanços na tecnologia de construção naval durante o final da Idade Média abririam o caminho para a presença europeia global, característica do início do período moderno.
Escultura Nok de uma pessoa sentada
Terracota fundida romana de Júpiter Amon com chifres de carneiro , uma forma de Zeus do século I dC. Deuses, às vezes podiam ser transferidos ou adotados por muitas civilizações e, então, ajustados às condições locais.
"Se há algo que você sabe, comunique. Se houver algo que você não sabe, pesquise." Uma gravura da edição de 1772 da Encyclopédie ; A verdade (centro) é rodeada de luz e desvelada pelas figuras à direita, Filosofia e Razão
A Pedra Ezana registra a conversão de negus Ezana ao cristianismo e as conquistas de seus vizinhos.
Execução de alguns dos líderes do jacquerie , de um manuscrito do século 14 das Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Colonização mundial de 1492 (início do mundo moderno), 1550, 1660, 1754 (Idade do Iluminismo), 1822 (revolução industrial), 1885 (hegemonia europeia), 1914 (era da Primeira Guerra Mundial), 1938 (era da Segunda Guerra Mundial), 1959 (Época da Guerra Fria) e 1974, 2008 (História recente).
Veado de ouro com cabeça de águia e mais dez cabeças nos chifres. Um objeto inspirado na arte da montanha Siberian Altai, possivelmente Pazyryk , desenterrado no local de Nalinggaotu, Condado de Shenmu , perto de Xi'an , China . Possivelmente do "povo Hun que vivia nas pradarias do norte da China". Datado do século 4 a 3 aC, ou período da Dinastia Han . Museu de História de Shaanxi .
Império Romano 117 DC. As províncias senatoriais foram adquiridas primeiro sob a República Romana e estavam sob o controle do Senado Romano ; as províncias imperiais eram controladas diretamente pelo imperador romano.